ripper-docs

Events

Below is a reference for the different scanner and parser events defined in Ripper. Each event specifies:

BEGIN

BEGIN is a parser event that represents the use of the BEGIN keyword, which hooks into the lifecycle of the interpreter. Whatever is inside the block will get executed when the program starts. The syntax looks like the following:

BEGIN {
}

Interestingly, BEGIN doesn’t allow the do and end keywords for the block. Only braces are permitted.

The handler for this event accepts one parameter that is always a stmts_add node:

def on_BEGIN(stmts_add); end

CHAR

CHAR is a parser event that represents a single codepoint in the script encoding. For example:

?a

is a representation of the string literal "a". You can use control characters with this as well, as in ?\C-a. The handler for this event accepts one parameter that is always a string:

def on_CHAR(value); end

END

END is a parser event that represents the use of the END keyword, which hooks into the lifecycle of the interpreter. Whatever is inside the block will get executed when the program ends. The syntax looks like the following:

END {
}

Interestingly, you can’t use the do and end keywords for the block. The handler for this event accepts one parameter that is always a stmts_add node:

def on_END(stmts_add); end

__end__

__end__ is a scanner event that represents __END__ syntax, which allows individual scripts to keep content after the main ruby code that can be read through the DATA constant. It looks like:

puts DATA.read

__END__
some other content that is not executed by the program

The handler for this event accepts one parameter that is always a string containing "__END__\n" (provided you’re using \n as the newline). Notably it does not contain the content appearing after the keyword, so you need to use the line number information to access that.

def on___end__(value); end

alias

alias is a parser event that represents the use of the alias keyword with regular arguments (not global variables). The alias keyword is used to make a method respond to another name as well as the current one. For example, to get the method name to also respond to aliased_name, you would:

alias aliased_name name

Now, in the current context you can call aliased_name and it will execute the name method. When you’re aliasing two methods, you can either provide bare words (like the example above) or you can provide symbols (note that this includes dynamic symbols like :"left-#{middle}-right").

The handler for this event accepts two parameters, that correspond to the first and second arguments to the keyword. So, for the above example the left would be the symbol literal aliased_name and the right could be the symbol literal name. Either argument can be a dyna_symbol node or a symbol_literal node.

def on_alias(left, right); end

aref

aref is a parser event when you’re pulling a value out of a collection at a specific index. Put another way, it’s any time you’re calling the method #[]. As an example:

collection[index]

The nodes usually contains two children, the collection and the index. In some cases, you don’t necessarily have the second child node, because you can call procs with a pretty esoteric syntax. In the following example, you wouldn’t have a second child node:

collection[]

Because the left-hand side of this expression can be any primary Ruby expression, its type is not known. The right-hand side (if provided) will be either an args_add node or an args_add_block node.

def on_aref(collection, index); end

aref_field

aref_field nodes are for assigning values into collections at specific indices. Put another way, it’s any time you’re calling the method #[]=. The aref_field node itself is just the left side of the assignment, and they’re always wrapped in assign nodes. As an example:

collection[index] = value

The nodes always contain two children, the expression that corresponds to the collection being indexed and the index itself. The collection is any primary Ruby expression. The index can optionally be omitted (in the very rare case that someone defines a #[]= method that accepts no arguments).

def on_aref_field(collection, index); end

arg_ambiguous

arg_ambiguous is a parser event that represents when the parser sees an argument as ambiguous. For example, in the following snippet:

value //

the question becomes if the forward slash is being used as a division operation or if it’s the start of a regular expression.

Unlike most other parser events, the output of the handler method for this event is not passed up to any parent nodes, as it is not a node in the resulting tree. As such, it does not matter what value is returned from the handler method. The handler accepts one parameter that is a string representing the ambiguous argument. In the above example, it would be "/".

def on_arg_ambiguous(value); end

arg_paren

arg_paren is a parser event that represents wrapping arguments to a method inside a set of parentheses. For example, in the follow snippet:

method(argument)

there would be an arg_paren node around the args_add_block node that represents the set of arguments being sent to the method method. The argument child node can be nil if no arguments were passed, as in:

method()

The handler for this event accepts one parameter, which is either an args_add, args_add_block, or args_forward node. It can also optionally be nil.

def on_arg_paren(args); end

args_add

args_add is a parser event that represents a single argument inside a list of arguments to any method call or an array. It accepts as arguments the previous args_add or args_new node as well as a value which can be anything that could be passed as an argument.

For example, in the following snippet:

method(first, second, third)

you would first receive an event for args_new. Then for each subsequent argument, you would receive an event for args_add, with the following arguments:

Note that because of the nature of the chaining here, it’s not possible to know if you’re on the last argument to a list without further inspecting the source through the scanner events.

def on_args_add(args, arg); end

args_add_block

args_add_block is a parser event that represents a list of arguments and potentially a block argument. If no block is passed, then the second argument will be the literal false. args_add_block is commonly seen being passed to any method where you use parentheses (wrapped in an arg_paren node). It’s also used to pass arguments to the various control-flow keywords like return.

For example, in the following snippet, the &block would trigger the args_add_block to have a vcall node as its second argument:

method(argument, &block)

whereas in the following snippet, you would have an args_add_block node with false as the block:

method(argument)

The handler for this event accepts the arguments (as an args_new, args_add, or args_add_star node) and the optional block (which is usually a vcall node, or false if it’s not passed).

def on_args_add_block(args, block); end

args_add_star

args_add_star is a parser event that represents adding a splat of values to a list of arguments. For example, in the following snippet, the *arguments would trigger an args_add_star event:

method(prefix, *arguments, suffix)

This event is very similar to the args_add event except that whatever expression is being used as an argument is prefixed with the splat operator. The handlers for this event accepts two arguments: the parent arguments node as well as the expression that is being splatted.

def on_args_add_star(args, arg); end

args_forward

args_forward is a parser event that represents forwarding all kinds of arguments onto another method call. For example, in the following snippet:

def request(method, path, **headers, &block); end

def get(...)
  request(:GET, ...)
end

def post(...)
  request(:POST, ...)
end

both the get and post methods are forwarding all of their arguments (positional, keyword, and block) on to the request method. The args_forward node appears in both the caller (the request method calls) and the callee (the get and post definitions).

The handler for this event accepts no arguments. It is passed up to the parent argument node (be it an args_add or args_add_block node).

def on_args_forward; end

args_new

args_new is a parser event that represents the beginning of a list of arguments to any method call or an array. It can be followed by any number of args_add, args_add_block, or args_forward events, which end up in a chain. For example, in the following snippet:

method(argument)

there will be one args_add node that contains as its first child an args_new node and its second child a vcall node for the argument. The handlers for this event accepts no arguments. It is passed up to the parent argument node (be it an args_add or args_add_block node).

def on_args_new; end

array

array is a parser event that contains myriad child nodes because of the special array literal syntax like %w and %i. For example, the following lines all produce an array event:

[]
[one, two, three]
[*one_two_three]
%w[one two three]
%i[one two three]
%W[one two three]
%I[one two three]

In order, the child node types coming in would be nil, args_add, args_add_star, qwords_add, qsymbols_add, words_add, and symbols_add. The handler for this event should account for those various types.

def on_array(contents); end

aryptn

aryptn is a parser event that represents matching against an array pattern using the Ruby 2.7+ pattern matching syntax. It’s one of the more complicated events, because the four parameters that it accepts can almost all be nil. First, let’s look at what kind of code triggers this event:

case [1, 2, 3]
in [Integer, Integer]
  "matched"
in Container[Integer, Integer]
  "matched"
in [Integer, *, Integer]
  "matched"
end

An aryptn event triggers with four parameters: an optional constant wrapper, an array of positional matches, an optional splat with identifier, and an optional array of positional matches that occur after the splat. All of the in clauses above would trigger an aryptn event.

In the first clause, the first parameter would be nil because it’s not being wrapped with a constant. The second parameter would be an array of nodes representing the two positional matches. The third parameter would be nil because there’s no splat operator, and the fourth parameter would be nil for the same reason.

In the second clause, the first parameter would be a const node containing the Container name, and the rest of the parameters would be the same as in the first clause.

The final clause would have a nil constant, a single-element array containing the first Integer match for the second parameter, a var_field node containing the splat for the third parameter, and another single-element array containing the final Integer match for the fourth parameter.

def on_aryptn(const, preargs, splatarg, postargs); end

assign

assign is a parser event that represents assigning something to a variable or constant. Generally, the left side of the assignment is going to be any node that ends with the name field (see naming).

variable = value

It accepts as arguments the left side of the expression before the equals sign and the right side of the expression. The right side of the expression can be any of most of the nodes in the tree.

def on_assign(left, right); end

assoc_new

assoc_new is a parser event that contains a key-value pair within a hash. It is a child event of either an assoclist_from_args or a bare_assoc_hash.

{ key1: value1, key2: value2 }

In the above example, the would be two assoc_new nodes. Each would contain a key (label nodes) and a value (vcall nodes).

def on_assoc_new(key, value); end

assoc_splat

assoc_splat is a parser event that represents double-splatting a value into a hash (either a hash literal or a bare hash in a method call).

{ **pairs }

Much like assoc_new, these nodes get added into an array that gets sent up to either an assoclist_from_args or a bare_assoc_hash. The handler for this event receives a single parameter the represents the value being double-splatted (which can be any Ruby expression).

def on_assoc_splat(contents); end

assoclist_from_args

assoclist_from_args is a parser event that represents the key-value pairs of a hash literal. Its parent node is always a hash.

{ key1: value1, key2: value2 }

The handler for this event accepts a single parameter: an array containing either assoc_new or assoc_splat nodes.

def on_assoclist_from_args(assocs); end

backref

backref is a scanner event that represents a global variable referencing a matched value. It comes in the form of a $ followed by a positive integer.

$1

The handler accepts a single string parameter containing the value as seen in the source.

def on_backref(value); end

backtick

backtick is a scanner event that represents the use of the ` operator. It’s usually found being used for an xstring_literal, but could also be found as the name of a method being defined.

`ls`

The above example would trigger two backtick events. The handler accepts a single string parameter that always contains a single backtick.

def on_backtick(value); end

bare_assoc_hash

bare_assoc_hash is a parser event that represents a hash of contents being passed as a method argument (and therefore has omitted braces). It’s very similar to an assoclist_from_args event.

method(key1: value1, key2: value2)

In the above example, the event would be triggered for the source bound between the key1 label and the value2 vcall. The handler for this event accepts a single array parameter of assoc events (either assoc_new or assoc_splat).

def on_bare_assoc_hash(assocs); end

begin

begin is a parser event that represents the beginning of a begin..end chain.

begin
  value
end

The handler for this event accepts a single bodystmt event that has all of the potential clauses (rescue/else/ensure).

def on_begin(bodystmt); end

binary

binary is a parser event that represents any expression that involves two sub-expressions with an operator in between. This can be something that looks like a mathematical operation:

1 + 1

but can also be something like pushing a value onto an array:

array << value

The handler for this event accepts three parameters. The first and last represent the left- and right-hand side of the operation. The second parameter represents the operator being used. On most Ruby implementations, the operator is a symbol (like :+ or :<< for the examples above). However, on JRuby, it’s an op node which matches some other event handlers.

def on_binary(left, operator, right); end

block_var

block_var is a parser event that represents the parameters being declared for a block. Effectively this event is everything contained within the pipes. This includes all of the various parameter types, as well as block-local variable declarations. For example:

method do |positional, optional = value, keyword:, &block|
end

In the above example, all of those parameters would be included inside the child params node. You can use a relatively esoteric syntax for declaring block-local variables, as in:

method do |positional; local|
end

With this syntax, local becomes a variable local only to the block, and can shadow an outer variable without overwriting or modifying it. The handler for this event accepts two parameters. The first is the params node that contains all of the declared parameters. The second is an optional array of ident nodes that represent any declared block-local variables. If none are present, then the second parameter will be the literal false.

def on_block_var(params, locals); end

blockarg

blockarg is a parser event that represents declaring a block parameter on a method definition.

def method(&block); end

In the above example, the &block would trigger a blockarg event. The handler for this event always accepts a single ident parameter which represents the name of the block parameter.

def on_blockarg(ident); end

bodystmt

bodystmt is a parser event that represents all of the possible combinations of clauses within the body of a method or do block. This means the regular statements and the optionally attached rescue, else, and ensure blocks. It can be passed up to any node that accepts these kinds of bodies like method definitions, lambdas using the do keyword, class and module definitions, singleton class scopes, and begin nodes. For example:

class Container
rescue
end

class << self
rescue
end

lambda do
rescue
end

In all three of the above snippets, the rescue keyword is used to indicate that a bodystmt node is being passed up to the various parent nodes. The handler for this event accepts four parameters. The first is a stmts_add node representing the first (and only required) set of statements. The second is an optional rescue node. The third is an optional second set of statements that belong in the else clause if one is given. The fourth and final parameter is an optional ensure node.

def on_bodystmt(stmts, rescued, ensured, elsed); end

Note that it’s difficult to determine the character bounds of this node since it doesn’t necessarily know where it started. You can look at the first child node that you encounter, but that might be missing comments that conceptually “belong” to this node. To remedy this, if you need the chracter bounds you need to determine them in each of the parent event handlers.

brace_block

brace_block is a parser event that represents passing a block to a method call using the { } operators. For example:

method { variable + 1 }
method { |variable| variable + 1 }

The handler for this event accepts as arguments an optional block_var event that represents any parameters to the block as well as a stmts_add event that represents the statements inside the block. So in the first line of the example above the first parameter would be nil, but in the second line it would be present.

def on_brace_block(block_var, stmts); end

break

break is a parser event that represents using the break keyword. For example:

break
break 1

The handler for this event accepts one parameter that is an args_new event (in the case of no parameters, as in the first line of the example) or an args_add_block event (in the case parameters were passed, as in the second line of the example) that contains all of the arguments being passed to the break keyword.

def on_break(args); end

call

call is a parser event representing a method call. This event doesn’t contain the arguments being passed (if arguments are passed, this node will get nested under a method_add_arg node).

receiver.message

There is one esoteric syntax that comes into play here as well. If the last parameter to the handler for this event is the symbol literal :call, then it represents calling a callable object in a very odd looking way, as in:

callable.(1, 2, 3)

The handler for this event accepts as parameters the receiver of the message (which can be another nested call as well), the operator being used to send the message (this can be an op node containing . or &., or the symbol literal :"::"), and the message that is being sent to the receiver. The message will usually be an ident node, but can also be a backtick, op, or const node, depending on the look of the message. It can also be the already mentioned :call symbol literal.

def on_call(receiver, operator, message); end

case

case is a parser event that represents the beginning of a case chain. For example:

case value
when 1
  "one"
when 2
  "two"
else
  "number"
end

case will also get dispatched when using the in keyword on a single line, as in:

value in pattern

Finally, case will get dispatched when using right-hand assignment in Ruby 2.7+, as in:

expression => value

The handler for this event accepts two parameters: the optional value that is being used as the predicate for the case chain, and the consequent clause (a when or in clause).

def on_case(switch, consequent); end

class

class is a parser event that represents defining a class using the class keyword. For example:

class Container
end

Classes can have path names as their class name in case it’s being nested under a namespace, as in:

class Namespace::Container
end

Classes can also be defined as a top-level path, in the case that it’s already in a namespace but you want to define it at the top-level instead, as in:

module OtherNamespace
  class ::Namespace::Container
  end
end

All of these declarations can also have an optional superclass reference, as in:

class Child < Parent
end

That superclass can actually be any Ruby expression, it doesn’t necessarily need to be a constant, as in:

class Child < method
end

The handler for this event accepts as parameters the name of the class (a const_path_ref, const_ref, or top_const_ref node), the optional value of the superclass (any Ruby expression), and the bodystmt event that represents the statements evaluated within the context of the class.

def on_class(const, superclass, bodystmt); end

comma

comma is a scanner event that represents the use of the , operator. In general you don’t necessarily need to handle this event, but it’s useful for determining if the source is using trailing commas in literals or method calls.

method(
  parameter1,
  parameter2,
)

The above example would trigger two comma events. The handler accepts a single string parameter that always contains a single comma.

def on_comma(value); end

command

command is a parser event representing a method call with arguments and no parentheses. Note that command events only happen when there is no explicit receiver for this method, as in the following example:

method argument

The handler for this event accepts as arguments the name of the method (either a const or an ident node) and the arguments being passed to the method (as an args_add_block node).

def on_command(message, args); end

command_call

command_call is a parser event representing a method call on an object with arguments and no parentheses.

object.method argument

The handler for this event accepts as arguments the receiver of the method (any Ruby expression), the operator being used to send the method (this can be an op node containing . or &., or the symbol literal :"::"), the name of the method (an op, ident, or const node, depending on what the method name looks like), and the arguments being passed to the method (an args_add_block node).

def on_command_call(receiver, operator, method, args); end

comment

comment is a scanner event that represents a comment in source.

# comment

The above example would trigger one comment events. The handler for this event accepts a single string parameter that contains the value of the comment (including the # sign).

def on_comment(value); end

Note that this is one of a few scanner events that give you a string value that can potentially extend beyond the range of ASCII. If there’s a magic encoding comment at the top of the source that ripper is parsing (as in # encoding: Shift_JIS) then the encoding of the string being passed into the handler for this event will match it. If you’re planning on serializing the resulting syntax tree in any way, it’s important to handle the encoding change in this event handler.

const

const is a scanner event that represents a literal value that looks like a constant. This could actually be a reference to a constant:

Const

It could also be something that looks like a constant in another context, as in a method call to a capitalized method:

object.Const

or a symbol that starts with a capital letter:

:Const

The handler for this event accepts a single string parameter that contains the value of the const.

def on_const(value); end

const_path_field

const_path_field is a parser event that always represents the child node of some kind of assignment. It represents when you’re assigning to a constant that is being referenced as a child of another variable. For example:

object::Const = value

The handler for this event accepts two parameters. The first is the value to the left of the :: operator. It’s the parent object of the constant that is being assigned. It can be any Ruby expression. The second is the const node that represents the constant being assigned (as in Const in the example above).

def on_const_path_field(left, const); end

const_path_ref

const_path_ref is a parser event that is a very similar to const_path_field except that it is not involved in an assignment. It looks like the following example:

object::Const

The handler for this event is the same as const_path_field. The first parameter for the left side of the :: operator and the second parameter for the right.

def on_const_path_ref(left, const); end

const_ref

const_ref is a parser event that represents the name of the constant being used in a class or module declaration. In the following example it is the const scanner event that has the contents of Container.

class Container; end

The handler for this event always accepts a single const parameter.

def on_const_ref(const); end

cvar

cvar is a scanner event that represents the use of a class variable.

@@variable

The handler for this event accepts a single string parameter that contains the name of the variable including the @@ prefix.

def on_cvar(value); end

def

def is a parser event that represents defining a regular method on the current self object. It accepts as arguments an ident node (the name of the method being defined), a params node (the parameter declaration for the method), and a bodystmt node which represents the statements inside the method. As an example, here are the parts that go into this:

def method(param) do result end

In this case method would be the ident, param would be inside the params node, and bodystmt would contain the single result statement.

You can also have single-line methods since Ruby 3.0+, which have slightly different syntax but still flow through this event handler. Those look like:

def method = result

In this case method would be the ident, the params node would be nil since this single-line method doesn’t declare any parameters, and the final parameter would just be a vcall for the result method.

The handler for this event accepts the ident and optional params nodes (note that this will be a paren node containing the params node if parentheses are used in the declaration). It also accepts the statements, which can either be a bodystmt node in the case of a multi-line method declaration or any Ruby expression in the case of a single-line statement.

def on_def(ident, params, body); end

defined

defined is a parser event that represents the use of the rather unique defined? operator. It can be used with and without parentheses.

defined?(variable)

The handler for this event accepts a single parameter that represents whatever Ruby expression is being passed to the operator.

def on_defined(value); end

defs

defs is a parser event that represents defining a singleton method on an object. For example:

def object.method(param) do result end

It accepts the same arguments as the def event, as well as the target and operator on which this method is being defined. So in the example above, the parameters would be the vcall for object as the target, a period node for the operator, and then the same parameters as the def event above.

def on_defs(target, operator, ident, params, body); end

do_block

do_block is a parser event that represents passing a block to a method call using the do and end keywords.

method do |value|
end

The handler for this event accepts as arguments an optional block_var event that represents any parameters to the block as well as a bodystmt event that represents the statements inside the block.

def on_do_block(block_var, bodystmt); end

dot2

dot2 is a parser event that represents using the .. operator between two expressions. Usually this is to create a range object.

1..2

Sometimes this operator is used to create a flip-flop.

if value == 5 .. value == 10
end

The handler for this event accepts two parameters representing the left and right side of the .. operator. Note that either one of them could be nil, but not both.

def on_dot2(left, right); end

dot3

dot3 is a parser event that represents using the ... operator between two expressions. It’s effectively the same event as the dot2 event but with this operator you’re asking Ruby to omit the final value.

1...2

Like dot2 it can also be used to create a flip-flop.

if value == 5 ... value == 10
end

The handler for this event accepts two parameters representing the left and right side of the ... operator. Note that either one of them could be nil, but not both.

def on_dot3(left, right); end

dyna_symbol

dyna_symbol is a parser event that represents a symbol literal that uses quotes to interpolate its value. For example, if you had a variable variable and you wanted a symbol that contained its value, you would write:

:"#{variable}"

They can also be used as a special kind of dynamic hash key, as in:

{ "#{key}": value }

The handler for this event accepts one parameter which is either a string_content node (representing an empty string, as in :"") or a string_add node (representing a non-empty string, as in the first example).

def on_dyna_symbol(contents); end

else

else is a parser event that represents the end of a if or unless chain.

if variable
else
end

The handler for this event accepts a single stmts_add node that represents the list of statements inside the else clause.

def on_else(stmts_add); end

elsif

elsif is a parser event that represents another clause in an if or unless chain.

if variable
elsif other_variable
end

The handler for this event accepts the predicate to the elsif operator (any Ruby expression), the statements inside the clause (a stmts_add node) and an optional consequent clause (elsif or else).

def on_elsif(predicate, stmts_add, consequent); end

embdoc

embdoc is a scanner event that gets dispatched when the parser is inside a multi-line comment and receive a new line of content. For example, in the following multi-line comment, the embdoc event would be dispatched twice:

=begin
first line
second line
=end

The handler for this event accepts a single string parameter containing the value of the line of content. Note that this includes the trailing newline.

def on_embdoc(value); end

embdoc_beg

embdoc_beg is a scanner event that represents the beginning of a multi-line comment.

=begin
comment
=end

In the above example, it represents the =begin string. The handler for this event accepts a single string parameter that always contains "=begin\n" (provided you’re using \n newlines).

def on_embdoc_beg(value); end

embdoc_end

embdoc_end is a scanner event that represents the ending of a multi-line comment.

=begin
comment
=end

In the above example, it represents the =end string. The handler for this event accepts a single string parameter that always contains "=end\n" (provided you’re using \n newlines).

def on_embdoc_end(value); end

embexpr_beg

embexpr_beg is a scanner event that represents the beginning token for using interpolation inside of a parent node that accepts string content (like a string or regular expression).

"Hello, #{person}!"

The handler for this event accepts a single string parameter that always contains the string literal "#{".

def on_embexpr_beg(value); end

embexpr_end

embexpr_end is a scanner event that represents the ending token for using interpolation inside of a parent node that accepts string content (like a string or regular expression).

"Hello, #{person}!"

The handler for this event accepts a single string parameter that always contains the string literal "}".

def on_embexpr_end(value); end

embvar

embvar is a scanner event that represents the use of shorthand interpolation for an instance, class, or global variable into a parent node that accepts string content (like a string or regular expression).

"#@variable"

In the example above, the # would be triggering the embvar event because it forces @variable to be interpolated. The handler for this event accepts a single string parameter that is always the string literal "#".

def on_embvar(value); end

Note that changing the return value of this method does not impact other event handlers since the result never gets passed up the tree.

ensure

ensure is a parser event that represents the use of the ensure keyword and its subsequent statements.

begin
ensure
end

The handler for this event accepts a single stmts_add event that represents the statements inside the ensure clause.

def on_ensure(stmts_add); end

excessed_comma

excessed_comma is a parser event that represents a trailing comma in a list of block parameters. It changes the block parameters such that they will destructure.

[[1, 2, 3], [2, 3, 4]].each do |first, second,|
end

In the above example, an excessed_comma node would appear in the third position of the params node that is used to declare that block. The third position typically represents a rest-type parameter, but in this case is used to indicate that a trailing comma was used. The handler for this event accepts no parameters (though in previous versions of Ruby it accepted a string literal with a value of ",").

def on_excessed_comma; end

fcall

fcall is a parser event that represents the piece of a method call that comes before any arguments (i.e., just the name of the method). It is used in places where the parser is sure that it is a method call and not potentially a local variable.

method(argument)

In the above example, it’s referring to the method segment. The handler for this event accepts a single ident or const parameter that represents the name of the message being sent.

def on_fcall(message); end

field

field is a parser event that is always the child of an assignment. It represents assigning to a “field” on an object, as in:

object.variable = value

The handler for this event accepts three parameters. The first is everything to the left of the operator (the object owning the field, can be any Ruby expression), the second is the operator itself (a period for ., an op for &., or the symbol literal :"::" for ::), and the third is everything to the right of the operator (the name of the field being assigned, either a const or ident node).

def on_field(left, operator, right); end

float

float is a scanner event that represents a floating point value literal.

1.0

The handler for this event accepts a single string parameter that represents the float’s value in string form.

def on_float(value); end

fndptn

fndptn is a parser event that represents matching against a pattern where you find a pattern in an array using the Ruby 3.0+ pattern matching syntax.

case value
in [*, 7, *]
end

In the above example, the syntax means it will match an array that contains a 7 integer literal.

The handler for this event accepts four parameters. The first is an optional constant wrapper like aryptn. The second is a var_field that represents the first * operator and its optional name. The third is any array of Ruby expressions that represent all of the values in the array between the two * operators. The fourth and final parameter is another var_field that represents the second * operator and its optional name.

def on_fndptn(const, presplat, values, postsplat); end

for

for is a parser event that represents using a for loop.

for value in list do
end

The handler for this event accepts three parameters. The first represents the list of iteration parameters. It can be an mlhs, an mlhs_add_star, or a var_field node, depending on the kind of iteration. The second is the Ruby expression that represents the value being iterated. The third and final parameter is a stmts_add node that represents the list of statements inside the for loop.

def on_for(iterator, enumerable, stmts_add); end

gvar

gvar is a scanner event that represents a global variable literal.

$variable

The handler for this event accepts a single string value that represents the variable including the $ prefix.

def on_gvar(value); end

hash

hash is a parser event that represents a hash literal.

{ key => value }

The handler for this event accepts a single optional assoclist_from_args parameter that represents the contents of the hash literal. If the hash literal is empty, this parameter will be nil.

def on_hash(assoclist_from_args); end

heredoc_beg

heredoc_beg is a scanner event that represents the beginning of the heredoc.

<<~DOC
  contents
DOC

In the above example, a heredoc_beg would get dispatched containing the "<<~DOC" string literal. The handler for this event accepts a single string parameter that represents the beginning declaration of the heredoc.

def on_heredoc_beg(value); end

heredoc_dedent

heredoc_dedent is a parser event that occurs when you’re using a heredoc with a tilde (otherwise known as a “squiggly” heredoc).

<<~DOC
  contents
DOC

This event will get dispatched once when the heredoc is closed. The handler for this event accepts two parameters. The first is the content of the heredoc, represented with a string_add node. The second is an integer that represents the number of characters that should be stripped off from the beginning of each line of the heredoc (because of the semantics of the tilde in the declaration).

def on_heredoc_dedent(string_add, width); end

heredoc_end

heredoc_end is a scanner event that represents the end of the heredoc literal.

<<~DOC
  contents
DOC

The handler for this event accepts a single string parameter that represents the end of the heredoc declaration. In the above example it would be the string literal "DOC\n" (provided you’re using \n newlines).

def on_heredoc_end(value); end

hshptn

hshptn is a parser event that represents matching against a hash pattern using the Ruby 2.7+ pattern matching syntax.

case value
in { key: }
end

The handler for this event accepts three parameters. The first is an optional constant wrapper, like aryptn and fndptn. The second is an array of pairs of label and an optional Ruby expression node for the value. Those pairs represent the key-value pairs used in the pattern matching. In the example above, it would contain a single pair of the key label and nil for the value. The third and final parameter is a var_field that represents the optional double splat for grabbing the remaining keys.

def on_hshptn(const, pairs, kwrest); end

ident

ident is a scanner event that represents an identifier anywhere in code. It can represent a very large number of things, depending on where it is in the syntax tree.

value

The handler for this event accepts a single string parameter representing the value in the source.

def on_ident(value); end

if

if is a parser event that represents the first clause in an if chain.

if predicate
end

The handler for this event accepts three parameters. The first is any Ruby expression that represents the predicate used in the if clause. The second is a stmts_add node that represent the statements inside the clause. The third and final parameter is an optional consequent clause the follows the if which can be an elsif or else clause.

def on_if(predicate, stmts_add, consequent); end

ifop

ifop is a parser event that represents a ternary clause.

predicate ? truthy : falsy

The handler for this event accepts three parameters. The first is the predicate used in the ternary. The second is the value used in the truthy case. The third is the value used in the falsy case. All three parameters can be any Ruby expression.

def on_ifop(predicate, truthy, falsy); end

if_mod

if_mod is a parser event that represents the modifier form of an if statement.

value if predicate

The handler for this event accepts two parameters. The first is the predicate for the if clause. The second is the statement being executed if the predicate is truthy. Both of the parameters can be any Ruby expression.

def on_if_mod(predicate, statement); end

ignored_nl

ignored_nl is a scanner event that represents a newline in the middle of a statement where it should be ignored. For example:

object.first
      .second

The ignored_nl event will get triggered on the newline between the first and second method calls. The handler for this event accepts a single parameter that is always nil.

def on_ignored_nl(value); end

ignored_sp

ignored_sp is a scanner event that represents the space before the content of each line of a squiggly heredoc that will be removed from the string before it gets transformed into a string literal. For example:

<<~DOC
  line1
    line2
DOC

In the above snippet, two ignored_sp event would be dispatched. The first would be dispatched with two spaces and the second with four.

def on_ignored_sp(value); end

imaginary

imaginary is a scanner event that represents an imaginary number literal.

1i

The handler for this event accepts a single string parameter that represents the value as seen in the source.

def on_imaginary(value); end

in

in is a parser event that represents using the in keyword within the Ruby 2.7+ pattern matching syntax.

case value
in pattern
end

Alternatively, in Ruby 3+ it is also used to handle rightward assignment for pattern matching.

value in pattern

Or, if you’re using rightward assignment without pattern matching:

expression => value

The handler for this event accepts three parameters. The first is the pattern that is being matched, which can be any Ruby expression. The second is a stmts_add node that represents the statements inside the in clause. The final is an optional consequent clause that follows this in clause, which can be either an in or else.

Note that for a single-line rightward pattern matching like the second example or single-line rightward assignment like the third example, both the second and third parameters to this event handler will be nil.

def on_in(pattern, stmts_add, consequent); end

int

int is a scanner event the represents a number literal.

1

The handler for this event accepts a single string parameter that represents the value as seen in the source.

def on_int(value); end

ivar

ivar is a scanner event the represents an instance variable literal.

@variable

The handler for this event accepts a single string parameter that represents the value as seen in the source, including the @ prefix.

def on_ivar(value); end

kw

kw is a scanner event the represents the use of a keyword. It can be almost anywhere in the syntax tree, so you end up seeing it quite a lot.

if value
end

In the above example, kw would be dispatched twice: once for the if and once for the end. Note that anything that matches the list of keywords in Ruby will dispatch this event, so if you use a keyword in a symbol literal for instance:

:if

then the contents of the symbol node will contain a kw node. The handler for this event accepts a single string parameter that represents the value as seen in the source.

def on_kw(value); end

kwrest_param

kwrest_param is a parser event that represents defining a parameter in a method definition that accepts all remaining keyword parameters.

def method(**kwargs); end

The handler for this event accepts a single optional ident node that represents the name of the parameter.

def on_kwrest_param(ident); end

label

label is a scanner event that represents the use of an identifier to associate with an object. You can find it in a hash key, as in:

{ key: value }

In this case "key:" would be the body of the label. You can also find it in pattern matching, as in:

case value
in key:
end

In this case "key:" would be the body of the label.

The handler for this event accepts a single string parameter that represents the value as seen in the source, including the : suffix.

def on_label(value); end

label_end

label_end is a scanner event that represents the end of a dynamic symbol. If for example you had the following hash:

{ "key": value }

then the string "\":" would be the value of this label_end. The handler for this event accepts a single string parameter that represents the value as seen in the source. It’s particularly useful for determining the type of quote being used by the label.

def on_label_end(value); end

lambda

lambda is a parser event that represents using a lambda literal (not the lambda method call).

->(value) { value * 2 }

The handler for this event accepts parameters a params node (which can be a paren node if parentheses are used) that represents any parameters to the lambda and a statements node (stmts_add for a lambda using braces and bodystmt for a lambda using the do and end keywords) that represents the statements inside the lambda.

def on_lambda(params, stmts); end

lbrace

lbrace is a scanner event representing the use of a left brace, i.e., {.

The handler for this event accepts a single string parameter that is always "{".

def on_lbrace(value); end

lbracket

lbracket is a scanner event representing the use of a left bracket, i.e., [.

The handler for this event accepts a single string parameter that is always "[".

def on_lbracket(value); end

lparen

lparen is a scanner event representing the use of a left parenthesis, i.e., (.

The handler for this event accepts a single string parameter that is always "(".

def on_lparen(value); end

magic_comment

magic_comment is a scanner event that represents the use of a pragma at the beginning of the file. Usually it will include something like frozen_string_literal (the key) with a value of true (the value). It can also take multiple other forms though if using the -*- emacs-style file pragmas. Note that it’s not just known values that dispatch this event, anything that matches a specific pattern will as well.

# frozen_string_literal: true

The handler for this event accepts two parameters, the key and value. They both come in as string literals.

def on_magic_comment(key, value); end

Note that the return value of this method will be passed immediately up into the comment event handler. So it is possible to skip this handler definition entirely and just process it in the comments handler.

massign

massign is a parser event that is a parent node of any kind of multiple assignment. This includes splitting out variables on the left like:

first, second, third = value

as well as splitting out variables on the right, as in:

value = first, second, third

Both sides support splats, as well as variables following them. There’s also destructuring behavior that you can achieve with the following:

first, = value

In this case a would receive only the first value of the value enumerable. The handler for this event accepts two parameters representing the left and right side of the = operator. The left-hand side will be any of mlhs, mlhs_add_post, mlhs_add_star, or mlhs_paren depending on how it is declared. The right-hand side will be any Ruby expression.

def on_massign(left, right); end

method_add_arg

method_add_arg is a parser event that represents a method call with arguments and parentheses.

method(argument)

The handler for this event accepts two parameters. The first represents the method being called, the second represents the arguments being passed to the method. In the example above, those would be fcall and arg_paren nodes, respectively.

You can also dispatch a method_add_arg event with a method on an object, as in:

object.method(argument)

In this case the first parameter would be a call node. Finally, you can dispatch a method_add_arg event when you are calling a method with no receiver that ends in a ?. In this case, the parser knows it’s a method call and not a local variable, so it dispatches a method_add_arg event as opposed to a vcall event, as in:

method?

In that case, the second parameter would be an args_new event.

def on_method_add_arg(method, args); end

method_add_block

method_add_block is a parser event that represents a method call with a block argument.

method {}

The handler for this event accepts two parameters, the method being called and the block being passed. The first can be a lot of different kinds of nodes, depending on how the method is being called. That parameter can be:

The second parameter will always be a brace_block or a do_block node.

def on_method_add_block(method, block); end

mlhs_add

mlhs_add is a parser event that represents adding another variable onto a list of variables within a multiple assignment.

first, second, third = value

In the above example, three mlhs_add events would be dispatched. The handler for this event accepts two parameters. The first is either the result of a previous call to mlhs_add or the result of the mlhs_new event handler. The second parameter is the variable that is being assigned, which can be one of:

def on_mlhs_add(mlhs, part); end

mlhs_new

mlhs_new is a parser event that represents the beginning of the left side of a multiple assignment. It is followed by any number of mlhs_add nodes that each represent another variable being assigned.

first, second, third = value

In the above example, the mlhs_new event would be dispatched just before the first variable is declared. The handler for this event accepts no parameters as it is effectively the start of a list.

def on_mlhs_new; end

mlhs_add_post

mlhs_add_post is a parser event that represents adding another set of variables onto a list of assignments after a splat variable within a multiple assignment.

left, *middle, right = values

In the example above, an mlhs_add_post event would be dispatched when the parser encountered the right token. The handler for this event accepts two parameters. The first is the mlhs_add_star the contains everything leading up to the splatted variable. The second is the mlhs_add that represents every variable after that splatted variable.

def on_mlhs_add_post(mlhs_add_star, mlhs_add); end

mlhs_add_star

mlhs_add_star is a parser event that represents a splatted variable inside of a multiple assignment on the left hand side.

first, *rest = values

The handler for this event accepts two parameters. The first is the result of the first call to either mlhs_new (if the splatted variable is the first in the list) or mlhs_add (if the splatted variable is not the first in the list). The second is the node that represents the value being splatted, which can be many different nodes (usually a field node, but it depends on the expression type).

def on_mlhs_add_star(mlhs, part); end

mlhs_paren

mlhs_paren is a parser event that represents parentheses being used to destruct values in a multiple assignment on the left hand side.

(left, right) = value

The handler for this event accepts one parameter which represents the value contained within the parentheses. Depending on the declaration, it can be an mlhs_add, mlhs_add_post, mlhs_add_star, or a nested mlhs_paren.

def on_mlhs_paren(contents); end

module

module is a parser event that represents defining a module using the module keyword.

module Namespace
end

The handler for this event accepts one parameter for the name of the module (a const node) and one parameter for the statements inside the module (a bodystmt node).

def on_module(const, bodystmt); end

mrhs_add

mrhs_add is a parser event that represents adding another value onto a list on the right hand side of a multiple assignment.

values = first, second, third

In the example above, three mrhs_add events would be dispatched, one for each identifier in the list. The handler for this event accepts the result of the handler for mrhs_new (if it’s the first element in the list) or mrhs_add if it’s not, as well as the part that is being added which can be any Ruby expression.

def on_mrhs_add(mrhs, part); end

mrhs_new

mrhs_new is a parser event that represents the beginning of a list of values that are being assigned within a multiple assignment node. It can be followed by any number of mrhs_add nodes.

values = first, second, third

In the example above, an mrhs_new event would be dispatched when the parser hits the first identifier. The handler for this event accepts no parameters as it represents the beginning of a list.

def on_mrhs_new; end

mrhs_add_star

mrhs_add_star is a parser event that represents using the splat operator to expand out a value on the right hand side of a multiple assignment.

values = first, *rest

The handler for this event accepts two parameters. The first is either an mrhs_new (in the case that the splat is the only value being assigned) or an mrhs_new_from_args (in the case that multiple values are being assigned, as in the example above). The second is the part that is being splatted into the list, which can be any Ruby expression.

def on_mrhs_add_star(mrhs, part); end

mrhs_new_from_args

mrhs_new_from_args is a parser event that represents the shorthand of a multiple assignment that allows you to assign values using just commas as opposed to assigning from an array. For example, in the following segment the right hand side of the assignment would dispatch this event:

values = first, second, third

The handler for this event accepts a single args_add or args_add_star node that represents the values being assigned.

def on_mrhs_new_from_args(args); end

next

next is a parser event that represents using the next keyword.

next

The next keyword can also optionally be called with an argument:

next value

next can even be called with multiple arguments, but only if parentheses are omitted, as in:

next first, second, third

If a single value is being given, parentheses can be used, as in:

next(value)

The handler for this event accepts a single parameter that represents the type of values being passed to the next keyword. In the case that no arguments are given, it’s an args_new node. If one or more arguments are given, it’s an args_add_block node.

def on_next(args); end

nl

nl is a scanner event representing a newline in the source. As you can imagine, it gets dispatched quite often, so take care if you’re defining this method manually.

The handler for this event accepts a single string parameter that always contains the value of the newline.

def on_nl(value); end

nokw_param

nokw_param is a parser event that represents the use of the Ruby 2.7+ syntax to indicate a method should take no additional keyword arguments. For example in the following snippet:

def method(**nil) end

This example is saying that the method method should not accept any keyword arguments. The handler for this event accepts a single parameter that is always the value nil.

def on_nokw_param(value); end

The result of this event handler will get passed up to the event handler for the params node that it is a part of in the kwrest position.

op

op is a scanner event representing an operator literal in the source. For example, in the following snippet:

1 + 2

In the example above, the + operator would dispatch this event. The handler for this event accepts a single string parameter that represents the operator as seen in the source.

def on_op(value); end

opassign

opassign is a parser event that represents assigning a value to a variable or constant using an operator like += or ||=.

variable += value

The handler for this event accepts three parameters. The first is the left side of the operator, which can be any kind of field node. The second is the op node that represents the operator being used. The third is the right side of the operator, which can be any Ruby expression.

def on_opassign(left, operator, right); end

operator_ambiguous

operator_ambiguous is a parser event that represents when the parser sees an operator as ambiguous. For example, in the following snippet:

method %[]

the question becomes if the percent sign is being used as a method call or if it’s the start of a string literal. The handler for this event accepts two parameters. The first is a symbol that represents the operator that dispatched this event (in the case of this example it would be :%). The second is a string that is used to indicate the kind of ambiguity (these are defined explicitly in the parser, in the case of this example it would be "string literal").

def on_operator_ambiguous(operator, ambiguity); end

params

params is a parser event that represents defining parameters on a method or lambda.

def method(param) end

In the example above a params event would be dispatched when the parser found the param identifier. The handler for this event accepts seven parameters, each indicating the presence of a different type of parameter (so they can all be nil). They are, in order:

Note that the shorthands above come from calling the Method#parameters method.

def on_params(req, opts, rest, post, keys, keyrest, block); end

paren

paren is a parser event that represents using balanced parentheses in a couple places in a Ruby program. In general parentheses can be used anywhere a Ruby expression can be used.

(1 + 2)

The handler for this event accepts a single parameter that represents the expression inside the parentheses.

def on_paren(contents); end

period

period is a scanner event that represents the use of the . operator. It is usually found in method calls.

The handler for this event accepts a single string parameter that always contains the value ".".

def on_period(value); end

program

program is a parser event that represents the overall syntax tree. It will always be called when a Ripper parser is used.

The handler for this event accepts a single stmts_add node that represents the top-level statements of the source.

def on_program(stmts_add); end

qsymbols_beg

qsymbols_beg is a scanner event that represents the beginning of a symbol literal array. For example:

%i[one two three]

In the snippet above, a qsymbols_beg event would be dispatched with the value of "%i[". The handler for this event accepts a single string parameter representing the token as seen in the source. Note that these kinds of arrays can start with a lot of different delimiter types (e.g., %i| or %i<).

def on_qsymbols_beg(value); end

qsymbols_add

qsymbols_add is a parser event that represents adding an element to a symbol literal array.

%i[one two three]

In the example above, three qsymbols_add events would be dispatched. The first would be with the result of the qsymbols_new event handler, the second with the result of the first qsymbols_add event handler call, and the third with the result of the second call.

The handler for this event accepts the current list of symbols (as a qsymbols_new or qsymbols_add node) and the next value that should be added (always a tstring_content node).

def on_qsymbols_add(qsymbols, tstring_content); end

qsymbols_new

qsymbols_new is a parser event that represents the beginning of a symbol literal array.

%i[one two three]

In the axample above, a qsymbols_new event would be dispatched when the parser finds the one token. It can be followed by any number of qsymbols_add events. The handler for this event accepts no parameters, as it’s the start of a list.

def on_qsymbols_new; end

qwords_beg

qwords_beg is a scanner event that represents the beginning of a string literal array. For example:

%w[one two three]

In the snippet above, a qwords_beg event would be dispatched with the value of "%w[". The handler for this event accepts a single string parameter representing the token as seen in the source. Note that these kinds of arrays can start with a lot of different delimiter types (e.g., %w| or %w<).

def on_qwords_beg(value); end

qwords_add

qwords_add is a parser event that represents adding an element to a string literal array.

%w[one two three]

In the example above, three qwords_add events would be dispatched. The first would be with the result of the qwords_new event handler, the second with the result of the first qwords_add event handler call, and the third with the result of the second call.

The handler for this event accepts the current list of strings (as a qwords_new or qwords_add node) and the next value that should be added (always a tstring_content node).

def on_qwords_add(qwords, tstring_content); end

qwords_new

qwords_new is a parser event that represents the beginning of a string literal array.

%w[one two three]

In the axample above, a qwords_new event would be dispatched when the parser finds the one token. It can be followed by any number of qwords_add events. The handler for this event accepts no parameters, as it’s the start of a list.

def on_qwords_new; end

rational

rational is a scanner event that represents the use of a rational number literal.

1r

The handler for this event accepts a single string parameter representing the value as seen in source.

def on_rational(value); end

rbrace

rbrace is a scanner event that represents the use of a right brace, i.e., }.

The handler for this event accepts a single string parameter that always contains the value "}".

def on_rbrace(value); end

rbracket

rbracket is a scanner event that represents the use of a right bracket, i.e., ].

The handler for this event accepts a single string parameter that always contains the value "]".

def on_rbracket(value); end

redo

redo is a parser event that represents the use of the redo keyword.

redo

The handler for this event accepts no parameters as the redo keyword accepts no arguments.

def on_redo; end

regexp_add

regexp_add is a parser event that represents a piece of a regular expression body.

/.+ #{pattern} .+/

In the example above, three regexp_add events would be dispatched. The first would be for the tstring_content node representing everything up to the interpolation. The second would be for the interpolated expression. The final would be for the second tstring_content node representing everything after the interpolation.

The handler for this event accepts two parameters. The first is the result of the call to the previous regexp_add (if this is not the first part of the regular expression) or the result of the call to regexp_new (if this is the first part of the regular expression). The second is the piece that is being added to the list of parts, which can be a tstring_content for plain string content, a string_embexpr for an interpolated expression, or a string_dvar for the shorthand variable interpolation.

def on_regexp_add(regexp, part); end

regexp_beg

regexp_beg is a scanner event that represents the start of a regular expression literal.

/.+/

In the example above, the regexp_beg event would be dispatched when the parser sees the / token. Regular expression literals can also be declared using the %r syntax, as in:

%r{.+}

The handler for this event accepts a single string parameter that represents the start of the regular expression literal (either the "/" or the "%r{" in the examples above).

def on_regexp_beg(value); end

regexp_end

regexp_end is a scanner event that represents the end of a regular expression literal.

/.+/m

In the example above, the regexp_end event represents the /m at the end of the regular expression literal. You can also declare regular expression literals using %r, as in:

%r{.+}m

The handler for this event accepts a single string parameter that represents the end of the regular expression literal (either the "/m" or the "}m" in the examples above).

def on_regexp_end(value); end

regexp_literal

regexp_literal is a parser event that represents a regular expression literal.

/.+/

The handler for this event accepts two parameters. The first is either a regexp_new node (if the regular expression literal is empty) or regexp_add (if there is content in the regular expression literal). The second is a regexp_end node that represents the end of the declaration of the regular expression literal.

def on_regexp_literal(regexp, ending); end

regexp_new

regexp_new is a parser event that represents the beginning of a regular expression literal.

/.+/

In the example above, a regexp_new event would be dispatched just before the .+ tstring_content node. The handler for this event accepts no parameters as it’s the start of a list.

def on_regexp_new; end

rescue

rescue is a parser event that represents the use of the rescue keyword inside of a bodystmt node.

begin
rescue
end

You can optionally rescue a list of exceptions (either in the form of constants by referencing them directly or in the form of variables that reference exceptions), as in:

begin
rescue exception
rescue IOError, SyntaxError
end

You can also assign the rescued error to a variable, as in:

begin
rescue => error
end

Finally, you can rescue a specific error and then assign it to a variable, as in:

begin
rescue IOError => error
end

The handler for this event accepts four parameters. The first is the list of exceptions that are being rescued. This is either nil (if there are no explicit exceptions being rescued), an array containing a single node (if only one exception is being rescued), a mrhs_add node (if multiple exceptions are being rescued), or an mrhs_add_star node (if multiple exceptions are being rescued and its using a splat). The second is an optional variable being used to capture the exception. The third is a stmts_add node representing the statements inside the rescue clause. Finally, the fourth is an optional consequent rescue clause if one is present.

def on_rescue(exceptions, variable, stmts_add, consequent); end

rescue_mod

rescue_mod is a parser event that represents the using modifier form of a rescue clause.

expression rescue value

The handler for this event accepts one parameter for the statement that is being rescued and one parameter for the value that should be used if an exception is raised. Both can be any Ruby expression.

def on_rescue_mod(statement, rescued); end

rest_param

rest_param is a parser event that represents defining a parameter in a method definition that accepts all remaining positional parameters.

def method(*rest) end

The handler for this event accepts a single optional ident parameter that represents the name assigned to the rest parameter. If no name is provided (just a bare *), then this parameter will be nil.

def on_rest_param(ident); end

retry

retry is a parser event that represents the use of the retry keyword.

retry

The handler for this event accepts no parameters as the retry keyword accepts no arguments.

def on_retry; end

return

return is a parser event that represents using the return keyword with arguments.

return value

The handler for this event accepts a single args_add_block event that contains all of the arguments being passed to the keyword.

def on_return(args_add_block); end

return0

return0 is a parser event that represents the bare return keyword.

return

The handler for this event accepts no parameters.

def on_return0; end

rparen

rparen is a scanner event that represents the use of a right parenthesis, i.e., ).

The handler for this event accepts a single string parameter that always contains the value ")".

def on_rparen(value); end

sclass

sclass is a parser event that represents a block of statements that should be evaluated within the context of the singleton class of an object. It’s frequently used to define singleton methods. It looks like the following example:

class << self
end

The handler for this event accepts two parameters. The first is the object whose singleton class the statements should be evaluated in. In the example above it would be the var_ref representing the self keyword. The second is the bodystmt node that represents the statements inside the block.

def on_sclass(object, bodystmt); end

semicolon

semicolon is a scanner event that represents the use of a semicolon in the source.

;

The handler for this event accepts a single string parameter that always contains the value ";".

def on_semicolon(value); end

sp

sp is a scanner event that represents the use of a space in the source. As you can imagine, this event gets triggered quite often, so take care when manually defining the event handler for this event.

The handler for this event accepts a single string parameter that always contains the value " ".

def on_sp(value); end

stmts_add

stmts_add is a parser event that represents a single statement inside a list of statements within any lexical block.

The handler for this event accepts two parameters. The first is the accumulated list of statements (either a stmts_new if it’s the first statement or a stmts_add if it’s not the first statement). The second is the statement that we’re adding to the list which can be any Ruby expression.

def on_stmts_add(stmts, stmt); end

Lots of different nodes function as wrappers around lists of statements (stmts_add/stmts_new nodes). For instance, an if or else block normally contains a list of statements, or the inside of a while loop, rescue clause, or lambda. Fortunately, they are all handled in the same way for each node type, which makes them simpler to work with if you’re going to be iterating through statement lists (for instance in a formatter or a static analyzer). The nodes that wrap statements are:

stmts_new

stmts_new is a parser event that represents the beginning of a list of statements within any lexical block. It can be followed by any number of stmts_add events.

The handler for this event accepts no parameters as it’s the start of a list.

def on_stmts_new; end

string_add

string_add is a parser event that represents adding a section onto a string.

"left #{middle} right"

In the example above, three string_add events would be dispatched. The first would be for the tstring_content on the left side of the interpolation. The second would be for the string_embexpr representing the interpolation. The third would be for the tstring_content on the right side of the interpolation.

The handler for this event accepts two parameters. The first is a string_content if it’s the first part of the string or a string_add if it’s not the first part. The second is the part that is being added to the string, which can be a tstring_content for plain string content, a string_embexpr for an interpolated expression, or a string_dvar for a shorthand variable interpolation.

def on_string_add(string, part); end

string_concat

string_concat is a parser event that represents concatenating two strings together using a backward slash, as in the following example:

"first" \
  "second"

The handler for this event accepts two parameters. The first is either a string_concat or a string_literal. The second is always the trailing string_literal.

def on_string_concat(left, right); end

string_content

string_content is a parser event that represents the beginning of the contents of a string.

"string"

In the example above, a string_content event would be dispatched when the parser encounters the string token. The handler for this event accepts no parameters as its the beginning of a list.

def on_string_content; end

string_dvar

string_dvar is a parser event that represents shorthand interpolation of a variable into a string. It allows you to take an instance variable, class variable, or global variable and omit the braces when interpolating. For example, if you wanted to interpolate the instance variable @variable into a string, you would write:

"#@variable"

The handler for this event accepts a single parameter that represents the variable being interpolated. This can either be a var_ref or a backref.

def on_string_dvar(variable); end

string_embexpr

string_embexpr is a parser event that represents interpolated content. It can be contained within a couple of different parent nodes, including regular expressions, strings, and dynamic symbols.

"string #{expression}"

The handler for this event accepts a single stmts_add node representing the statements contained within the interpolation.

def on_string_embexpr(stmts_add); end

string_literal

string_literal is a parser event that represents a string literal.

"string"

It is also used to represent a heredoc literal.

<<~DOC
  string
DOC

The handler for this event accepts a single string_content node (if the string is empty) or a string_add node (if the string is not empty).

def on_string_literal(string); end

super

super is a parser event that represents using the super keyword with arguments. It can optionally use parentheses.

super(value)

The handler for this event accepts a single parameter that represents the arguments given to the super keyword. It can be an arg_paren (in parentheses are used) or an args_add_block (if parentheses are not used).

def on_super(args); end

symbeg

symbeg is a scanner event that represents the beginning of a symbol literal.

:symbol

symbeg will also get dispatched for dynamic symbols, as in:

:"symbol"

Finally, symbeg will get dispatched for symbols using the %s syntax, as in:

%s[symbol]

The handler for this event accepts a single string parameter. In most cases (as in the first example above) it will contain just ":". In the case of dynamic symbols it will contain ":'" or ":\"". In the case of %s symbols, it will contain the start of the symbol including the %s and the delimiter.

def on_symbeg(value); end

symbol

symbol is a parser event that immediately descends from a symbol_literal.

:symbol

The handler for this event accepts a single node that represents the contents of the symbol. In most cases this will be an ident node, but if the symbol matches other patterns it can be other scanner events (like kw for :if or ivar for :@ivar).

def on_symbol(contents); end

symbol_literal

symbol_literal is a parser event that represents a symbol in the system with no interpolation (as opposed to a dyna_symbol).

:symbol

The handler for this event accepts a single parameter. In most cases it is a symbol node. In rare cases, it’s an ident node (where Ruby accepts bare words like alias aliased_name name).

def on_symbol_literal(contents); end

symbols_add

symbols_add is a parser event that represents adding an element to a symbol literal array with interpolation.

%I[one two three]

In the example above, three symbols_add events would be dispatched. The first would be with the result of the symbols_new event handler, the second with the result of the first symbols_add event handler call, and the third with the result of the second call.

The handler for this event accepts the current list of symbols (as a symbols_new or symbols_add node) and the next value that should be added (always a word_add node).

def on_symbols_add(qsymbols, word_add); end

symbols_beg

symbols_beg is a scanner event that represents the start of a symbol literal array with interpolation. For example, in the following snippet:

%I[one two three]

In the snippet above, a symbols_beg event would be dispatched with the value of "%I[". The handler for this event accepts a single string parameter representing the token as seen in the source. Note that these kinds of arrays can start with a lot of different delimiter types (e.g., %I| or %I<).

def on_symbols_beg(value)

symbols_new

symbols_new is a parser event that represents the beginning of a symbol literal array with interplation.

%I[one two three]

In the example above, a symbols_new event would be dispatched when the parser finds the one token. It can be followed by any number of symbols_add events. The handler for this event accepts no parameters, as it’s the start of a list.

def on_symbols_new; end

tlambda

tlambda is a scanner event that represents the beginning of a lambda literal.

-> { value }

In the example above it represents the -> operator. The handler for this event accepts a single string parameter that always has the value of "->".

def on_tlambda(value); end

tlambeg

tlambeg is a scanner event that represents the beginning of the body of a lambda literal using braces.

-> { value }

In the example above it represents the { operator. The handler for this event accepts a single string parameter that always has the value of "{".

def on_tlambeg(value); end

top_const_field

top_const_field is a parser event that is always the child of some kind of assignment. It represents when you’re assigning to a constant that is being referenced at the top level. For example:

::Constant = value

The handler for this event accepts a single const parameter that represents the name of the constant being assigned to.

def on_top_const_field(const); end

top_const_ref

top_const_ref is a parser event that is a very similar to top_const_field except that it is not involved in an assignment. It looks like the following example:

::Constant

The handler for this event accepts a single const parameter that represents the name of the constant being referenced.

def on_top_const_ref(const); end

tstring_beg

tstring_beg is a scanner event that represents the beginning of a string literal.

"string"

In the example above, a tstring_beg event would be dispatched when the parser encounters the " token. Strings can also use single quotes. They can also be declared using the %q and %Q syntax, as in:

%q{string}

The handler for this event accepts a single string parameter that represents the start of the string.

def on_tstring_beg(value); end

tstring_content

tstring_content is a scanner event that represents plain characters inside of an entity that accepts string content like a string, heredoc, command string, or regular expression.

"string"

In the example above, a tstring_content event would be dispatched for the string token contained within the string. The handler for this event accepts a single string parameter containing the value as seen in the source.

def on_tstring_content(value); end

tstring_end

tstring_end is a scanner event that represents the end of a string literal.

"string"

In the example above, a tstring_end event would be dispatched when the parser encountered the second set of quotes. Strings can also use single quotes. They can also be declared using the %q and %Q syntax, as in:

%q{string}

The handler for this event accepts a single string parameter representing the end of the string literal.

def on_tstring_end(value); end

unary

unary is a parser event that represents a unary method being called on an expression, as in !, ~, or not.

!value

The handler for this event accepts a parameter for the operator being used (in the form of a symbol) and a parameter for the value which can be almost any Ruby expression.

def on_unary(operator, value); end

undef

undef is a parser event that represents the use of the undef keyword.

undef method

The handler for this event accepts a single array parameter that represents all of the names of the methods to be undefined. The names of the methods can be symbol_literal nodes (in the case of actual symbol literals or bare words) or they can be dyna_symbol nodes (in the case of dynamic symbols).

def on_undef(methods); end

unless

unless is a parser event that represents the first clause in an unless chain.

unless predicate
end

The handler for this event accepts three parameters. The first is the predicate to the unless clause which can be any Ruby expression. The second is the list of statements inside the clause (represented by a stmts_add node). The third is an optional consequent node representing the following elsif or else clause.

def on_unless(predicate, stmts_add, consequent); end

unless_mod

unless_mod is a parser event that represents the modifier form of an unless statement.

value unless predicate

The handler for this event accepts two parameters. The first is the predicate being used and the second is the statement to be executed. Both parameters can be any Ruby expression.

def on_unless_mod(predicate, statement); end

until

until is a parser event that represents an until loop.

until predicate
end

The handler for this event accepts two parameters. The first is the predicate for the until clause which can be any Ruby expression. The second is the list of statements inside the loop which is represented by a stmts_add node.

def on_until(predicate, stmts_add); end

until_mod

until_mod is a parser event that represents the modifier form of an until loop.

expression until predicate

The handler for this event accepts a parameter for the predicate to the until clause and a parameter for the statement to be executed. Both can be any Ruby expression.

def on_until_mod(predicate, statement); end

var_alias

var_alias is a parser event that represents when you’re using the alias keyword with global variable arguments.

alias $new $old

The handler for this event accepts two parameters. The first is always a gvar node which represents the first argument to the alias keyword. The second is either a gvar node if a previously-defined global variable is being aliased or a backref node if a back reference is being aliased.

def on_var_alias(left, right); end

var_field

var_field is a parser event that represents a variable that is being assigned a value. As such, it is always a child of an assignment type node. For example:

variable = value

In the example above, the var_field event represents the variable token. The handler for this event accepts a single ident node that represents the name of the variable being assigned to.

def on_var_field(ident); end

Note that there are a few cases where the ident can be omitted, as in the case that you’re using a single splat operator without a name.

var_ref

var_ref is a parser event that represents a variable reference.

variable

This can be a plain local variable like the example above. It can also be a constant, class variable, global variable, instance variable, keyword (like self, nil, true, or false), or numbered block variable.

The handler for this event accepts a single scanner event parameter representing the value as seen in source.

def on_var_ref(contents); end

vcall

vcall nodes are any plain named object with Ruby that could be either a local variable or a method call.

variable

The handler for this event accepts a single ident node that represents the contents.

def on_vcall(ident); end

void_stmt

void_stmt is a special kind of parser event that represents an empty lexical block of code.

;;

In the example above, there is a void_stmt between the two semicolons. The handler for this event accepts no parameters.

def on_void_stmt; end

when

when is a parser event that represents another clause in a case chain.

case value
when predicate
end

The handler for this event accepts three parameters. The first is the predicate used in the when clause, which can be any Ruby expression. The second is the statements contained within the clause, represented by a stmts_add node. The third is an optional consequent clause that follows this when clause, which can be an else node or another when node.

def on_when(predicate, stmts_add, consequent); end

while

while is a parser event that represents a while loop.

while predicate
end

The handler for this event accepts two parameters. The first is the predicate for the while clause which can be any Ruby expression. The second is the list of statements inside the loop which is represented by a stmts_add node.

def on_while(predicate, stmts_add); end

while_mod

while_mod is a parser event that represents the modifier form of an while loop.

expression while predicate

The handler for this event accepts a parameter for the predicate to the while clause and a parameter for the statement to be executed. Both can be any Ruby expression.

def on_while_mod(predicate, statement); end

word_add

word_add is a parser event that represents a piece of a word within a special array literal that accepts interpolation.

%w[a#{b}c xyz]

In the example above, word_add would be dispatched four times. Three for the first word (the plain content, the interpolation, and the plain content), and once for the second word.

The handler for this event accepts the accumulated word (either a word_add or a word_new node) and the part that should be appended (anything that can be added into a string_add).

def on_word_add(word, part); end

word_new

word_new is a parser event that represents the beginning of a word within a special array literal (either strings or symbols) that accepts interpolation. For example, in the following array, there are three word nodes:

%W[one a#{two}a three]

Each word inside that array is represented as its own node, which is in terms of the parser a tree of word_new and word_add nodes. The handler for this event accepts no parameters as it is the start of a list.

def on_word_new; end

words_beg

words_beg is a scanner event that represents the beginning of a string literal array with interpolation. For example:

%W[one two three]

In the snippet above, a words_beg event would be dispatched with the value of "%W[". The handler for this event accepts a single string parameter representing the token as seen in the source. Note that these kinds of arrays can start with a lot of different delimiter types (e.g., %W| or %W<).

def on_words_beg(value); end

words_add

words_add is a parser event that represents adding an element to a string literal array with interpolation.

%W[one two three]

In the example above, three words_add events would be dispatched. The first would be with the result of the words_new event handler, the second with the result of the first words_add event handler call, and the third with the result of the second call.

The handler for this event accepts the current list of strings (as a words_new or words_add node) and the next value that should be added (always a word_add node).

def on_words_add(words, word_add); end

words_new

words_new is a parser event that represents the beginning of a string literal array with interpolation.

%W[one two three]

In the example above, a words_new event would be dispatched when the parser finds the one token. It can be followed by any number of words_add events. The handler for this event accepts no parameters, as it’s the start of a list.

def on_words_new; end

words_sep

words_sep is a scanner event that represents the separation between two words inside of a word literal array. It contains any amount of whitespace characters that are used to delimit the words. For example,

%w[
  one
  two
  three
]

In the snippet above there would be two words_sep events dispatched, one between one and two and one between two and three. The handler for this event accepts a single string parameter that contains the separation between the two consecutive elements in the array.

def on_words_sep(value); end

xstring_add

xstring_add is a parser event that represents appending a part of a string of commands that gets sent out to the terminal.

`ls`

The handler for this event accepts two parameters. The first is either an xstring_new node (if this is the first part of the string) or an xstring_add node (if this is not the first part of the string). The second is the part of the string to append (which can be any node that string_add accepts).

def on_xstring_add(xstring, part); end

xstring_new

xstring_new is a parser event that represents the beginning of a string of commands that gets sent out to the terminal.

`ls`

The handler for this event accepts no parameters, as it is the start of a list.

def on_xstring_new; end

xstring_literal

xstring_literal is a parser event that represents a string of commands that gets sent to the terminal.

`ls`

They can also use heredocs to present themselves, as in the example:

<<-`CMD`
  ls
CMD

The handler for this event accepts a single xstring_new node (if it is empty) or xstring_add node (if it is not empty) which represents its contents.

def on_xstring_literal(xstring); end

yield

yield is a parser event that represents using the yield keyword with arguments.

yield value

The handler for this event accepts a single args_add_block event that contains all of the arguments being passed. It can also be a paren node if parentheses are being used.

def on_yield(args); end

yield0

yield0 is a parser event that represents the bare yield keyword.

yield

The handler for this event accepts no parameters. This is as opposed to the yield parser event, which is the version where one or more values are being yielded.

def on_yield0; end

zsuper

zsuper is a parser event that represents the bare super keyword.

super

The handler for this event accepts no parameters. This is as opposed to the super parser event, which is the version where one or more values are being passed to the super keyword.

def on_zsuper; end